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Warsaw (Warszawa) – the capital of Poland since 1596. The population of 1.7 million inhabitants, with suburbs of 2.88 million.

The first settlements on the territory of modern Warsaw date back to the 10th century. At the beginning of the XV-XVI centuries, Warsaw was the capital of the Principality of Mazovia, in 1596 – 1795 – throughout Poland, in the years 1807-13 – the Duchy of Warsaw (actually under the French protectorate), from 1815 – the kingdom of Poland (as part of the Russian Empire).

Warsaw is located on both sides of the Vistula, almost in the heart of Poland. This area is rich in folk traditions, it is characterized by a low-lying landscape with a large open space. The river divides the city into two parts that differ from each other. On the western bank of the Vistula is a shopping center in Warsaw. The poorer one – the eastern bank of the river, known as industrial Prague, is gradually losing its abandoned appearance due to the growing number of modern shopping centers, office buildings and apartment buildings.

Warsaw public transport is highly developed. There are many bus routes – all buses run on schedule, at each stop there is a schedule of all routes, it is also written which bus arrives at a certain time – regular or with a low floor – for the disabled.

There are also many tram lines, one metro line. Everything also runs on schedule. Travel on tickets that can be bought at kiosks or from a driver of a transport (he will require “fractional”, that is, a trifle, change to be considered once). Tickets must be punched in the vehicle. All tickets are universal, there is no separation by mode of transport. Recently, the metro operates around the clock.

The city center was almost completely destroyed by the Nazis during the 2nd World War. After the war, it was carefully restored and listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as a model example of scientific restoration.

Last modified: 10/19/2009
Warsaw had to go a difficult way. By the end of World War I, approximately 85% of the city lay in ruins. The old city and other historical monuments were carefully restored in the post-war period. Today, the fact of their restoration from the ashes is impressive in itself, however, after the reconstruction, some critics considered the restored Old City an unconvincing fake. However, strangely enough, in fact, the current appearance of the Old City is much more consistent with the original idea of ​​architects of the 17th century. The city was restored according to old drawings, and later changes were not taken into account.

There are 43 museums in Warsaw, as well as 23 drama theaters, 2 opera houses, an operetta theater and a philharmonic society.

When you leave the Old Town for the New one, you must pass through the Barbican – part of the city wall that once surrounded the Old Town. In the 14-18 centuries, the historical center of the city was protected by a double ring of the fortress wall with several towers. This defensive structure was built in 1598 according to the project of the Italian architect Giovanni Batista.

Castle Square.
The beautiful Castle Square is located in the medieval Old Town, famous for its beautiful buildings and narrow streets. In the center of the square stands the column of Sigismund III – the second most popular monument in Warsaw. It was installed in the years 1634-1644 at the initiative of King Vladislav VI, son of Sigismund III, and is one of the oldest monuments in the city.

Church of the Holy Cross.
The Church of the Holy Cross was built in 1679-1696 according to the design of the Italian architect Bellotti. A wooden church once stood on this site, but by the end of the 17th century it was completely destroyed. The church acquired its modern look in the early 18th century. The cathedral is especially dear to the townspeople as a place where the heart of the outstanding composer Frederic Chopin is kept.

Jewish cemetery.
Once the Warsaw Jewish community was one of the largest in Europe. After World War II, one of the largest Jewish cemeteries appeared in Warsaw. The ancient cemetery is located on Okopova street, next to the Protestant cemetery and not far from Povacki. It is still a functioning cemetery, and restoration work is underway here.

Lazienki Park and the Palace on the water.
Lazienki Park, located almost in the very center of the city, is one of the most beautiful parks in Warsaw. The park has numerous historical and cultural monuments – the Lazienki Palace, often called the “Palace on the Water”, several not so grandiose, but also noteworthy smaller palaces, pavilions, an amphitheater and two greenhouses.

Market Square.
Market Square is one of the most beautiful squares in Warsaw. It is also one of the favorite places for walks of citizens and guests of the city. Ancient architecture, street musicians, artists, small shops, cozy restaurants create a unique atmosphere of medieval Europe. The market square dates back to the 13th century; its modern layout dates back to the 17th century.

Palace of Culture and Science.
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